Sentence Comprehension and Production

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     A.    Sentence Comprehension
A sentence is the smallest unit that expresses a complete thought, either by spoken or written. In oral form, the sentence was pronounced in a voice soft and hard up and down, interrupted by pauses, and ending with final intonation followed by a silence that prevents the occurrence of fusion or assimilation of other sounds or phonological processes. In the form of writing, the sentence begins with a capital letter and ends with full stop (.), question mark (?), or an exclamation mark (!), and in it you can include punctuation such as comma (,), colon (:), split (-), and space. A period, question mark and exclamation mark on a form commensurate with the tone of the final paper in an oral form of the following spaces while they symbolize silence. Punctuation is worth the pause. The sentence is also a combination of two or more words that generate a sense and intonation patterns of late.

Comprehension has two general senses, namely comprehension in a narrow sense and in a broad sense. Comprehension in the narrow sense signifies the mental process in which a listener receives the sounds uttered by the speaker and use it to build an interpretation of what they think in order to deliver it. Comprehension in the broad sense, the listener usually put their interpretation to extract new information presented and storing information in memory.

Of the two statements, we can conclude that the sentence is the smallest unit that expresses a complete thought, whether spoken or written by the spoken or written, while comprehension is the mental process in which a listener receives the sounds uttered by the speaker and use it to build an interpretation of what they think in order to deliver it. So the sentence comprehension is a constructive process, which is a place where listeners take advantage of external information of the speech perception system as well as internal information, which consists of linguistic knowledge, facts about the world, lexical information, the expectations on many levels, and a set of strategies to gain a superficial meaning of a superficial form.

      B.     Sentence Production

Djardjowidjojo defines "process in producing speech can be divided into four levels:
1)        The message, in which the messages to be delivered are processed,
At the level of the message, the speaker gather information from the meaning to be conveyed. As the example below:

"Tutiek was feeding her child"

The information are: (a) the person, (b) the person is female, (c) She got married, (d) She has a son, (e) She is doing something, (f) the act is feeding her child.

2)        The functional level, where the shape is selected and then given the role of lexical and syntactic function,

At the functional level, there are two things that are processed. First, choose the appropriate lexical form with a message that will be delivered and grammatical information for each one that she knew, the woman in question is Tutiek, and this word is the name of the woman; the action is “feed”; between argument Tutiek and his son, Tutiek is perpetrator of the act being Tutiek son is recipient.
The second process at the functional level is to provide a function on the selected word. The process here involves syntactic grammatical relations or grammatical functions. In the example above, the word Tutiek must be associated with the function of the subject, while his son on the object.

3)        Positional level, where the constituents are formed and affixation is done, and
At the processing level posisisonal, sorted lexical forms for speech to be issued. Ordering lexical forms for speech to be issued. Ordering is not based on a linear rows, but on the hierarchical unity of meaning. In this example, the word is linked to the child, and not on Tutiek or feeding. Constituent hierarchy is the basis for the tree diagram.

4)        The level of philology, in which the phonological structure of speech is realized. "

After sorting is completed, the relevant affixation will be processed. In the Indo-European languages ​​like English, verbs feeding (to feed) to the sentence should have inflectional affixes-ing (feeding). For the Indonesian language, basic verbs with the suffix must be added bribe-i (in addition to optionally perfiks).

The results of processing these positional "sent" to the phonological level to be realized in the form of sound.


Agung, S. 2011. Pemahaman Kalimat dan Unsur-unsurnya. Diakses pada tanggal 20 April 2012.

Arif, M. 2012. Produksi Ujaran. Diakses pada tanggal 22 April 2012.

Clark, Herbert H. and Clark, Eve V. (1997). Psychology and Language: an Introduction to Psycholinguistics. New York. HBC
Tarigan, Henry Guntur. 2009. Psikolinguistik. Bandung: Angkasa

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