Second Language Acquisition Principles, Theories and Practice

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Second language acquisition has continuity with the first language acquisition. The term second language acquisition is the acquisition of which began at age 3 or 4 years. Second language acquisition is important for each individual to be able to interact properly in its environment. For most children in Indonesia, the Indonesian language is not their first language, but a second language, or third. Introduction / Indonesian mastery can occur through a process of acquisition or the learning process. Acquisition process occurs naturally, unconsciously, through no formal interaction with parents and / or peers, without guidance.

      A.    Principle
According to Barcroft there are five principles in second language acquisition, including:

1)      Present new words frequently and repeatedly in the input.
The more frequently Learners are exposed to language foreign vocabulary; the more Likely They are to remember it. That most studies suggest the need Between 5-16 Learners 'meetings' with a word in order to retain it. Every word and phrase must be entered correctly Identified multiple times to Obtain the highest score, while the variety of exercises and activities prevents this from being boring repetition.

2)      Use meaning-bearing comprehensible input when presenting new words.
In order for Learners to successfully make-the Association between a foreign language word and its meaning, that meaning must be conveyed in a comprehensible manner. One method for making foreign terms comprehensible and Thus Spake promoting vocabulary learning is to present each word in a variety of ways.

3)      Limit forced output during the initial stages of learning new words.
Forcing language Learners to rush into sentence formation can interfere with learning vocabulary during the beginning stages of acquiring a new language. Instead, Learners should be given time to absorb the meanings of individual words at Their Own Pace before being required to use them in a larger context. Language Learners who take that time are far more Likely to use the words entered correctly when They do choose to form sentences.

4)      Limit forced semantic elaboration during the initial stages of learning new words.
In Addition to not forcing beginning language Learners to Immediately Produce whole sentences, a vocabulary program should also avoid other Kinds of elaboration That Might Produce negative effects on the learning of new words. Some Learners may find it distracting or confusing if They are asked to perform other tasks at the same time That They are Trying to commit new words to memory.

5)      Progress from less demanding to more demanding vocabulary-related activities.
Vocabulary learning is most effective when Learners start off with a small group of words, then gradually add more terms as the first ones are Mastered.

The conclusion was that when children acquire new vocabulary that they still do not know, the word should be given frequently and repeatedly in order to fit into their long-term memory. This is intended so that they can remember and master more words that sound familiar.

       B.     Theory
Second language can be defined based on the sequence, ie, obtained or learned the language after the child master the language first (B1) or the mother tongue. Language acquisition, as language learning, can be seen from several theories, the theory of acculturation, accommodation theory, discourse theory, the theory of the monitor, competence theory, the theory of universal hypotheses, and theories neurofungsional.

1)        Acculturation Theory
Acculturation is the process of adjustment to a new culture (Brown, 1987:129). These theories view language as a cultural expression of the most obvious and can be observed and that the new acquisition process will be seen from the way people looked at each other between the B1 and B2. Although it may not be so precise, this theory can be used to explain the acquisition process has begun B2 when the child begins to adapt itself to the culture of B2, the use of words such as greeting, voice tone, word choice, and other rules. In this theory, social distance and psychological distance will determine the success of obtaining children.

2)        Theory of Accommodation
B1 and B2 look at the theory, for example, as two distinct groups. This theory attempts to explain the relationship between the two groups is dynamic.

3)        Discourse Theory
       This theory is very suitable to be applied in the context of this conversation. Language acquisition in terms of how children discover the meaning potential through participation in the communication language. Cherry (via Ellis, 1986:259) emphasizes the importance of communication as an effort to develop the rules of language structure.

4)        Monitor Theory
       Theory of Krashen (1977) this view of language acquisition as a constructive creative process. Monitor is a tool used to edit the child's performance (verbal performance) the language. This Monitor work using the competency "learned".

5)        Competence Theory of Variable
       This theory can be seen that the acquisition reflected B2 and how language is used. The product consists of products planned languages ​​(such as mimicking the story or dialogue) and unplanned (such as everyday conversation).

6)        Universal Theory Hypothesis
       This theory believes that there are linguistic universals that determine the course of acquisition B2.

7)        Theory Neurofungsional
       Language acquisition is closely related to the nervous system, particularly Broca's area (area of ​​verbal expressive) and Wernicke's (comprehension area). Nevertheless, the association area, visual, speech and tone also play a role. Thus, the actual language acquisition also involves the brain child and left.

The conclusion was that the language is the source of the most visible cultural expressions and can be observed in the process of language acquisition. The process of language acquisition has begun when the child begins to adapt itself to the language of culture, such as the use of the word of greeting, voice tone, word choice, and other rules.

     C.     Practice
Practice in second language acquisition, can be done with a variety of existing approaches, including:

1)      The Grammar Translation Approach
This approach had been made to teach Latin, but the next is used to teach various languages. Teachers who use this approach to teaching a second language to first language (mother tongue). Target language is only used a few times. Vocabulary list to the main menu to be memorized by the students, and teachers elaborates with grammar. Usually the material is taken for the discussion of the grammar is difficult texts. Learners are more focused on the analysis of the meaning of the sentence compared to the participants' understanding of the text .The way of trained in using a second language is through translation per-sentence. Pronounciation in this approach is not so emphasized.

2)      The Direct Approach
The emergence of this approach in response to The Grammar Translation Approach is considered incomplete in the process of teaching a second language. In The Direct Approach, teachers could use a second language is taught only as an introduction. First language is not used in the classroom. Teachers usually start learning to make conversation and show pictures. In addition, the grammar is taught in integral is taken from the expression language that is being discussed. Grammar texts are not analyzed, but the meaning. Introduced cultural understanding as well as a very important part in learning a second language.

3)      The Reading Approach
This approach is more intended for academic interest, or in other words for a particular purpose. In addition, The Reading Approach emphasizes the empowerment of learners reading skills. In addition, to trace the history of how the language is spoken. Grammar is taught as it relates and is necessary to understand the contents of the text being read, in addition to fluency in the reading to be one important factor being taught. Pronounciation and speaking abilities, especially in a conversation is not emphasized. In contrast, vocabulary lists and graded according to level of difficulty is given to students for memorized. The goal for students with specific time can have a lot of vocabulary, so that he can easily understand any kind of text.

4)      The Audiolingual Method
This type of approach is used based on the principles of the theory Behavioristic. In addition, this approach is a lot to adapt and direct approach in response to the lack of speaking in reading instruction approach. Teachers deliver the new material by means of dialogue. Recall (memorization), and play expression (mimicry) be one of the main techniques in this approach. Grammar is taught in stages and over and over, as the process of strengthening, in addition to the teaching of grammar taught in integral based on the topics being discussed.

5)      Community Language Learning
This type of approach is somewhat different from previous approaches. Community language learning is intended to relieve anxiety or fear (anxiety) when learners learn a second language. Consequently, this approach emphasizes the direction of regular guidance and counseling rather than teaching. Therefore, teachers are trained counselors who plays as learners.

6)      The Silent Way
This type of approach is used so that learners are more active in learning in the classroom. Teachers are more concentrated in scrutinizing how the students say and how they say it ekspresiekspresi. The teacher was trying to make the students able to pronounce various words by producing the correct word, in addition to practicing spontaneous second language use in any situation.

7)      Functional-Notional Approach
This method is part of the umbrella communicative approach. However, the functional-notional approach emphasizes the organization of the language syllabus. The emphasis is to divide the global concept of language into units of analysis in communication situations that are commonly used by speakers of the language. Teaching is divided into several elements such as nouns, pronouns, verbs, prepositions, conjunctions, pronouns or adjectives. Variations also affect the situation of languages ​​such as dialects, formal and informal.

8)      Total Physical Response
James J. Asher defines the Total Physical Response (TPR) as an approach that combines information and expertise through the use of sensor systems kinestatis. This combination of skills allows learners to assimilate information quickly. The result was brought to the level of motivation of learners.

The conclusion is an understanding of spoken language before developing speaking skills, emphasis on communication of information transfer. Learners are not forced to say, but conditioned to be ready to talk when the students feel comfortable and confident in understanding and producing language. Several techniques can be done by teachers, as teachers themselves demonstrate some expressions that are taught. The teacher asks the students to follow. The teacher asks the students to demonstrate their own. Teachers and students play a role in turn. Teachers and students can expand the production of a new sentence.


Anonim. Second Language. Diakses pada tanggal 05 Juni 2012
Clark, Herbert H. and Clark, Eve V. (1997). Psychology and Language: an Introduction to Psycholinguistics. New York. HBC
Maulida, E. 2012. Memahami Hakikat dan Prinsip Belajar. Diakses pada tanggal 01 Juni 2012

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