Pscycholinguistics Paradigm: Interactionist

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Interactionist is a combination of two approaches, behaviorism and nativism approach, which emphasizes a combination of internal and external factors in the process of language acquisition and learning. This view assumes that language acquisition is the result of interaction between the learner's mental abilities with the language environment. The relationship between the two is the result of the actual interaction between the learner and others. The starting point of this approach is that human cognitive abilities in finding sruktur language around it. Then the process of language acquisition and learning is also influenced by the surrounding environment. (Sofa, January 28, 2008)

Language acquisition is related to the interaction between "input" and  internal capabilities possessed learners. Every child has innate intelligence. However, without a corresponding input is not possible given the child can master the language automatically. Actually, internal and external factors in first language acquisition by the child is affected. True if there is a theory that the child's language skills have been there since birth. It has been proved by the discoveries as was done by Howard Gardner. He said that since the birth of children have been equipped with a variety of intelligence. One of the intelligence in question is the language of intelligence. However, that can not be overlooked is also the environmental factors that affect the child's language skills.

Interactionist view that both psychological and social factors, they come to take a role in the process of language acquisition. This theory was much influenced by the results of experimental psycholinguistic research and cognitive psychology. The interactionist stressed the importance of interactions that take place between individuals, between individuals and groups, and between groups with other groups and so on to form the "conversations". Due to the existence of such conditions will help language learners to gain access to new knowledge about the target language, of course, this would have happened if fully supported by the interlocutor (the person spoken to) (Lightbown & Spada, 1999:43). Thus, both the Hatch (1992), Teresa Pica (1994), and Michael Long (1983) says that "much of L2 acquisition takes place through conversational interaction, since what the Learners need is not a simplification of linguistic form but an opportunity to Interact with other speakers, in the which way leads them make-adaptation "(Lightbown & Spada, 1999:43).

Despite all the advantages inherent in this interactionist theory, is not without critics, such as that experienced by previous theories. Among other things, his criticism is that there are many things to be known by a learner who was not with that input, so the need to re-refer to the theory innatisme, such innate principles is said Chomsky.


Keli, A. 2009. Konsep dan Teori Pemerolehan Bahasa. Diakses pada tanggal 24 Maret 2012.

Tarigan, Henry Guntur. ( 1985). Psikolinguistik. Bandung: Angkasa

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