Teaching Media

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(Focuses on Weaknesses of Using Flash Card) 

            This paper will explain about flash cards which used in teaching part of body in elementary school, furthermore, this paper tells about types of teaching media, content of teaching media, the weaknesses of teaching that used, development and steps of using flash card.
            The students in elementary school like learning while playing. Using flash cards in teaching elementary students made them very enjoying because the picture will attract them. Beside that, picture made them remember in long term. But, flash card has weaknesses too. In this paper will explain clearly about how to handle the weaknesses in learning process.

There are so many instructional media are used in teaching that starting from the simplest or cheapest ones to the most complex ones, without the need of the electricity, up to the most expensive ones which needed the electricity.
Vernon (1996) states that there are six kinds of media;
1.      Drawing or teacher mode drawings
This media can be constructed and supported the topic which is being taught. The teacher can prepare it at home and apply it easily in the class to achieve the goals of the teaching and learning process.
2.      Still pictures
This media can be shown into the real objects or the events of outside the class. A still picture is a record or a copy of a real object or event which may be longer or smaller than the real object or events, for examples: photograph, bulletin board material, brochure, etc.
3.      Audio recording
Recording is a mode of magnetic, on disc, or on motion picture soundtracks. This is the reproduction of actual event of sound effects. Sound is presented in the sequence in which they actually happen unless the recording is edited. Audio recording may be used individually or displayed directly to the audience.
4.       Motion picture and TV
A motion picture or video tape recording is a moving image on color or black and white produced from live action or from graphic presentation. Objects or events may be in normal motion and edited for abbreviating or high lighting. It can be silent or having sound. All types of audio-video electronic system can be appeared on a cathode ray tube or TV monitor.
5.      Real object, simulation and models
Real Object, Model. This category includes people, events, objects and demonstration. Real objects as contrasted with other media are not substituted by the artificial objects or events. They are, in fact, life, often in its natural setting. There are countless real objects in the immediate community. As long as they are readily and economically available, use them. Simulation is the replication of real situation which has been designed to be as near actual events or process as possible. A model is a replica or reality. It is often in scale and may be in miniature, exact side or an enlargement.
6.      Programmed and computer-assisted instruction
Programs are sequences of information which are designed to elicit predetermined response. The most common examples are programmed text books or instructional programs prepared for computer.
Mulyana, Kim classifies the instructional media for teaching language into: Games and simulation, for example: Simon says, Scrabble, Bingo, Words puzzle. Some examples of simulation: role playing, socio drama, psycho drama, puppet show. Visual media, for example : a black board, flannel board, magnetic board, wall chart, flash card, reading box, reading machine, module, picture card, slide, film, OHP. Audio Media, for example: radio, recordings, record player.
Audio-visual media, for example: voiced slide, film, TV, Video Tape Recorder.
There are also visual media that can be effectively used by teachers in the classroom. Those media are as follow;
1.      Pictures.
They can be photographs of people, places and things which used in magazines, newspapers or calendars.
2.      Realia or real objects.
Realia means real things, objects such as coins, tools, plants, animals, or collection of artifacts that teachers can bring into the class room to illustrate the meaning of the teaching material to be more clearly, meaningful and memorable.
3.      Drawings or teacher-mode drawings.
Drawings are quick to do. They should be simple but show a lot of information.
4.      Chart, poster and cartoon
Cartoon Flipchart Poster, Chart is a drawing which shows information in the form of a diagram, a map of the sea, or the sky, etc. Poster is a large printed picture or notice in a public place, often used to advertise something. Cartoon is a funny drawing especially one in a newspaper or a magazine that makes a joke about current events. All the above media can be used in four language skills; listening, writing, reading, and writing in teaching and learning process.
5.      Black board or white board
The black board or white board is the most important visual media which most of the classrooms have. The board can be used for presenting drawings, diagram and written language. It is always available for various purposes without special preparation.
6.      Audio media
As well as the board, the tape recorder has come to be valuable media to the language learners and teachers. Cassettes are much easier to use for many listening activities. You can take recording of the radio to provide authentic materials for listening practices, or you can make your own materials using a recorder.
7.      Over Head Projector (OHP)
Over head projector is very useful for large classes. Teachers can face the class freely. Teaching by using an OHP is less messy than using chalk. Material can be prepared before the hand on the transparency. Presenting material on the OHP allows you to face the learners all the time and provides the learners with a common focus of attention.
8.      LCD Projector
LCD stands for Liquid Crystal Display. It is similar with an OHP. It must be connected to the computer to display teaching materials to learners. And nowadays LCDs are more popular than OHPs for presentation or for teaching because they are more practice and efficient.
According to kinds of teaching media above, flash cards is included in visual media.

            I used two kind of flash card to teach parts of body. The first is pictures such as; head, shoulders, knees, toes, eyes, ears, mouth, and nose. And the other was name of part of bodies.

            When I used flash card in teaching part of body, some students didn’t pay attention to my pictures. So, when I ask some of the students, he can’t answer correctly. It means that using flash card needs all participation of the students. Beside that, size of the flash cards influences in teaching. Flash cards should be able to be seen by the students.

            After we know about the weaknesses of using flash cards, I think I must make an improvement to polish the weaknesses so that it won’t happen again. For the first problem, it is about the participation of the students, I have to make good condition before starting to study. And for the second problem, it is about the size of flash card. I have to make big size approximately 15x20 cm. So, all students can look at the flash card.

            There are steps in using flash card when I was taught:
1.      Firstly, I shown the flash card one by one and told them the name at the same time.
2.      Next steps, I shown the word and told them one by one
3.      I shown the pictures and the word twice
4.      After that, I shuffled the card and choose one card and let the students guess it.
5.      Every student has opportunity to guess, because I made a game, it was called “talking stick”. In this game, I used pen to round with another student, rounding the pen while singing a song, if the song was end, the student who got the pen has opportunity to guess the picture. If his answer was right, he got applause from all students, and if the answer was wrong, he has to sing a song.

Using flash card in teaching learning process will make teaching more effective. But,   before we conclude to use flash card, we have to prepare about the size of flash card and the condition of the student.

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